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node-seal is a homomorphic encryption library for TypeScript or JavaScript.

  • Web Assembly: Fastest web implementation of the C++ Microsoft SEAL library
  • Zero dependencies: Very lean, only contains a low level API which is very close to the C++ calls from Microsoft SEAL.
  • Node.js, Browser, React Native: Install once, work in any server/client configuration.

Now supporting Microsoft SEAL 3.6.0

Installation

node-seal can be installed with your favorite package manager:

npm install node-seal
yarn add node-seal

Import the library using import or require syntax:

// Auto-detects browser or nodejs.
// Defaults to "node-seal/throws_wasm_node_umd" for NodeJS
// Defaults to "node-seal/throws_wasm_web_umd" for Browsers
// Defaults to "node-seal/throws_wasm_web_es" for Modules
import SEAL from 'node-seal'
const SEAL = require('node-seal')

You may also specify a deep import to target your environment better. This is useful for environments that aren't detected properly or do not support WebAssembly. In addition, there are two separate bundles for throwing on transparent ciphertexts and another for allowing transparent ciphertexts. If you're unsure what you need, start with the build that throws on transparent ciphertexts. This is also the default import that is used.

The deep import link is structured like the following:

node-seal / <throws|allows>_<wasm|js>_<node|web|worker>_<umd|es>

// Always Pick a variant which throws on transparent ciphertexts unless you
// have a specific reason to allow the use of transparent ciphertexts.
import SEAL from 'node-seal/throws_wasm_node_umd'

// Or pick a variant which allows transparent ciphertexts (only use this if you know what you're doing)
import SEAL from 'node-seal/allows_wasm_node_umd'

React-Native

The bundle needs a bit of extra work. Specifically, it expects the browser crypto.getRandomValues which it will not find by default as react-native doesn't support the crypto builtin. It can be fixed by npm install react-native-get-random-values which provides access to this global while supporting a CSPRNG. The library also needs to have the browser document which is an artifact from the build system. Simply provide global.document = {}. Finally, it requires the following deep import structure:

// Provide a CSPRNG mapping to crypto.getRandomValues()
import 'react-native-get-random-values'
import SEAL from 'node-seal/throws_wasm_web_umd'
;(async () => {
  // Spoof the browser document
  global.document = {}
  // Wait for the library to initialize
  const seal = await SEAL()
  //...
})()

Demo

Go to morfix.io/sandbox

This sandbox was built for users to experiment and learn how to use Microsoft SEAL featuring node-seal.

  • Encryption Parameters: experiment with many settings to prototype a context.
  • Keys: Create, download, upload Secret/Public Keys - even for Relinearization and Galois Keys.
  • Variables: Create, download, upload PlainTexts or CipherTexts
  • Functions: Create a list of HE functions to execute!
  • Code Generation: After your experimentation is complete, generate working code to use!

Usage

Checkout the basics

Documentation

View the latest docs here

Examples

Check out the Sandbox to run HE functions and even generate working code!

If you'd rather read an example, take a look here.

For more exhaustive examples, view the tests or the benchmarks.

Changes

For changes in this library, take a look here.

For changes in Microsoft SEAL, take a look at their list of changes.

Benchmarks

A set of benchmarks similar to the benchmarks of the native SEAL C++ code can be found here.

Run them by cloning this repository and then run npm run benchmark:bfv or npm run benchmark:ckks.

The scripts are only for NodeJS. We have adapted a variant of this script for each browser and have shown the results in the section below.

Performance

Test specs 2018 MacBook Pro:

  • 2.6 GHz 6-Core Intel Core i7
  • 16 GB 2400 MHz DDR4

Versions:

  • Microsoft Seal v3.4.5
  • Node-seal v4.1.4
  • NodeJS v12.16.1
  • Chrome Version 80.0.3987.149 (Official Build) (64-bit)
  • Firefox 74.0 (64-bit)
  • Safari Version 13.0.5 (15608.5.11)

Encryption Parameters:

  • Scheme: BFV
  • Poly Modulus Degree: 16384
  • Coeff Modulus Size: 438 (48 + 48 + 48 + 49 + 49 + 49 + 49 + 49 + 49) bits
  • Plain Modulus: 786433

number of iterations is 100, time in microseconds. Browser timers are known to be imprecise, variance maybe high.

16384, n = 100 Node.js Chrome Firefox Safari Seal (C++) Node.js (times slower) Chrome (times slower) Firefox (times slower) Safari (times slower)
KeyPair 36422 32770 29000 55000 22376 1.63 1.46 1.30 2.46
RelinKeys 230859 197870 198000 175000 138788 1.66 1.43 1.43 1.26
GaloisKeys 5937772 5084275 4936000 4624000 3577623 1.66 1.42 1.38 1.29
Batch 868 752 670 767 327 2.65 2.30 2.05 2.35
Unbatch 1026 926 730 1467 304 3.38 3.05 2.40 4.83
Encrypt 46826 41455 37110 34800 18712 2.50 2.22 1.98 1.86
Decrypt 20992 19078 16460 15667 6134 3.42 3.11 2.68 2.55
Add 1404 1185 447 389 212 6.62 5.59 2.11 1.83
Multiply 245425 231089 209040 204700 60896 4.03 3.79 3.43 3.36
Multiply Plain 35541 31305 24260 22367 10318 3.44 3.03 2.35 2.17
Square 180152 169122 155860 148533 45762 3.94 3.70 3.41 3.25
Relinearize 98158 85478 66870 66333 25139 3.90 3.40 2.66 2.64
Rotate Row One Step 97292 85724 67615 65400 25247 3.85 3.40 2.68 2.59
Rotate Row Random Step 416774 384842 295540 285733 118948 3.50 3.24 2.48 2.40
Rotate Column 97366 85515 67730 64567 25274 3.85 3.38 2.68 2.55

Caveats

Conversion from C++ to Web Assembly has some limitations:

  • ±2^53 bit numbers: JavaScript uses 2^53 numbers (not true 64 bit). Values higher than these will typically result in inaccuracies. If you're using the CKKS scheme, you need to keep this in mind. BFV users will inherently adhere to these limitations due to the Int32Array/Uint32Array TypedArrays. Recently, BFV users now have support for BigInt64Array/BigUint64Array TypedArrays but at a significant encode/decode penalty - encyption/evaluation/decryption performance is the same.

  • Memory: Generating large keys and saving them in the browser could be problematic. We can control NodeJS heap size, but not inside a user's browser.

    Saving keys is very memory intensive especially for polyModulusDegreess above 16384. This is because there's currently no way (that we have found) to use io streams across JS and Web Assembly code, so the strings have to be buffered completely in RAM and they can be very, very large. This holds especially true for GaloisKeys where you may hit JS max string limits (256MB).

  • Garbage Collection: Unfortunately, the typical way of cleaning up dereferenced JS objects will leave behind a the Web Assembly (C++) object in memory. There is no way to automatically call the destructors on C++ objects. JavaScript code must explicitly delete any C++ object handles it has received, or the heap will grow indefinitely.

    <instance>.delete()
    

Contributing

The main purpose of this library is to continue to evolve and promote the adoption of homomorphic encryption (using Microsoft SEAL) in modern web applications today. Development of node-seal happens in the open on GitHub, and we are grateful to the community for contributing bugfixes and improvements.

See CONTRIBUTING.md.

License

node-seal is MIT licensed.

FOSSA Status